What Are Free Radicals? Plus, How to Combat Them
If you keep up with all things skin care, you’ve likely heard a time or two about how free radicals are bad news for your skin. But are you aware of why these molecules are so damaging to your body’s largest organ, and what they’re capable of? If not, you’ll want to keep reading. We tapped board-certified dermatologist, and Skincare.com consultant, Joshua Zeichner, MD, to break down the connection between free radicals and the skin. Read on to discover what free radicals are, how they can harm your skin and what you can do it about it.
What Are Free Radicals?
Before getting into just how much havoc free radicals can wreak on your skin, we must first explain what free radicals are. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that are formed by normal bodily functions — like breathing, for instance — as well as environmental aggressors, such as UV rays, smoke and pollution. These unstable compounds look to pair with a missing electron. In doing so they can latch onto your skin, create a negative chain reaction on your skin’s surface and induce damage to cells. “[Free radicals] have extra energy in them that can damage neighboring skin cells and collagen,” Dr. Zeichner says. As far as what that damage can look like, we’re sharing all that and more ahead.
What Can Free Radicals Do to Your Skin?
Aside from genetics and time, free radicals are one of the most common causes of visible signs of skin aging, including sagging skin, fine lines and wrinkles. The Cleveland Clinic suggests that when the skin is exposed to environmentally-induced free radicals, they can penetrate the skin, attack lipids that protect skin against moisture loss and in turn weaken the skin’s barrier. As a result, the skin appears to age prematurely due to dryness and the loss of elasticity. In addition to premature aging, a study published in The Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology suggests that there may be a connection between free radicals and acne as well.
How Can You Help Protect Your Skin From Free Radical Damage?
While there’s not much you can do about pollution that’s already swarmed the atmosphere, you can certainly take precautionary measures to ensure your skin is staying well protected against free radicals. That’s where antioxidants like vitamin C come in. Antioxidants are capable of neutralizing free-radical damage by pairing with scavenging free radicals in search of a missing electron. Without that protection in place, the free radical could latch onto a skin protein and break it down.
How to Incorporate Antioxidants Into Your Skin-Care Routine
Now that you know the crucial role of antioxidants in skin care, it’s time to start applying them to your skin. The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) suggests using antioxidants in tandem with a broad-spectrum sunscreen to help protect your skin from the sun’s harmful UV rays. There are plenty of antioxidant-rich serums on the market that can serve as a solid line of defense under your sunscreen of choice. Below, we share a few of the best antioxidant serums on the market.
Beloved by editors, dermatologists, and influencers alike, SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic is a daytime antioxidant serum – –formulated with vitamins C and E, as well as ferulic acid –– that offers environmental protection against free radicals. In addition to protecting the skin against free-radical damage, C E Ferulic can help reduce visible signs of aging — think: fine lines and wrinkles — and photo-damage.
Sensitive skin types should put this potent vitamin C serum on their radar. Formulated with vitamin C and ferulic acid, Serum 10 AOX+ helps neutralize free radical damage to the skin which can include premature signs of aging. But sensitive skin types aren’t the only ones who can benefit from this serum. It’s a great introductory antioxidant serum for all skin types looking to improve the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and protect their skin against free radicals.
Ideal for normal, oily and combination skin types, this daytime antioxidant serum — formulated with phloretin, vitamin C and ferulic acid — provides enhanced protection against premature signs of skin aging caused by environmentally-induced free radicals. What’s more, the formula can help improve the appearance of discoloration, fine lines and uneven skin tone.